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Larsen Brothers: Photographers in the Dundee, Vryheid, Volksrust (Charlestown) triangle

Impact of the Boer War on the Family and the Business

Notes by DV Larsen : Saturday, 9 March, 2002

My Grandfather Sigvart Larsen and his twin brother Emil were photographers that worked in the Dundee, Vryheid, Volksrust triangle. On the 8th of October 1900 my grandparents' VRYHEID home was taken over by the British and immediately occupied by Lieutenant-Colonel Gawne, O/C forces in Vryheid. It is interesting to note that whilst Lieutenant-Colonel Gawne enjoyed the comfort of the Larsen home most of his 900 strong force was garrisoned on Lancaster Hill just outside the town.

The next two months of inactivity bred complacency in the 2/Royal Lancaster Regiment and in the early hours of the morning of the 11th of December a 1200 strong Boer force approached Vryheid-Lancaster Hill from the north and attacked the garrison.

Lieutenant-Colonel John Moore Gawne was a descendant of John Murray, 1st Earl of Atholl. The family must have had strong ties to South Africa as John Murray, the 11th Duke of Atholl, was born 19th January 1929 in Johannesburg and (his son) Lord Craig John Murray was born on the 5 June 1963 in Louis Trichardt.

Summary:

In the late 1800s and early 1900s Sigvart and Emil Larsen (twin brothers) were photographers in the Dundee, Vryheid, Volksrust triangle.

In the South African State Archives there are affidavits dealing with the 8th of October 1900 occupation of the Larsen's VRYHEID home. Some of the affidavits are signed by the neighbours of the Larsens, Hester Magdalena Pratt and Ida Louise Damman. During the occupation of the house the British removed and destroyed all of my grandfather's photographic plates. There is a reference to a Boer Policeman by the name of Wessels and an affidavit signed by the District Surgeon Aaron Tren? In the Larsen family files there are references to the Potter and Colenbrander families and a placed called Enfield House in Vryheid.

See note below that reads: "1900-10-08 .... a Military Officer takes the keys from the Larsens and their home is immediately occupied by Lieutenant-Colonel Gawne, O/C forces in Vryheid, and a Captain Shaw. Most of Lieutenant-Colonel Colonel Gawne's 900 strong force are garrisoned on Lancaster Hill just outside the town. The records show that the next two months of inactivity bred complacency in the 2/Royal Lancaster Regiment garrisoned at Lancaster Hill."

 

LARSEN FAMILY IN VRYHEID - 1900 to 1906

Sigvart Larsen (Norwegian: born Sigvart Sivertsen Nygaardsvig. Died 9 April 1926 in Durban aged 57)

Married 3 March1897

Mary Ann Edwards, (British: born in Birmingham, England )

Children:

1) Alfred Ernest Larsen born 4November1899 in Vryheid, Died 12 January1900 in Vryheid, South Africa

2) Angel Sivert Larsen born 29January1901 in Durban, South Africa

3) Victor Theodore Larsen born 7November1902 in Vryheid, South Africa

4) Cyril Larsen born 9 April1904 in Vryheid, South Africa

5) Clarence Larsen born 1November1905 in Vryheid, South Africa

 

SUMMARY OF EVENTS IN VRYHIED - 1900 to 1906

1884-08-16 Formation of the Republic of Vryheid in Natal - became part of the larger Transvaal Republic in 1886

1899-10-11 Boer commandos, some 14 000 strong crossed into Natal over Langs Nek and passed Majuba. As they advanced they split into three columns. The right column, under command of General Kock advanced south past Fort Mistake to capture the railway line at Elandslaagte, thus preventing British reinforcements at Ladysmith from reaching Dundee. The left column, under General Lukas Meyer, made a wide sweeping movement into the Utrecht and Vryheid area to round up support. The central column under General "Maroela" Erasmus advance towards Dundee.

1899-11-04 Alfred Ernest Larsen born in Vryheid

1900-01-12 Alfred Ernest Larsen died in Vryheid aged 2 months

1900-05-15 By mid-May l900 the Boers lacked sufficient strength to hold Vryheid and, although virtually deserted, the town was some distance from Buller's axis of advance, and its capture is probably not a strategic priority or tactical necessity.

1900-09-18 Vryheid, the virtually deserted Capital of the Transvaal Boer Republic, taken by Lieutenant-General H.J.T.Hildyard's 5th Division and Lieutenant-Colonel Gawne is appointed District Commissioner.

1900-10-08 Larsen family are expelled from their home as 'undesirables'. They had only one hours notice and have to leave with a British convoy accompanying Lieutenant-General H.J.T.Hildyard. It should be noted that Mrs Larsen, a British subject who recently lost a child, is 6 months pregnant and that Mr Larsen, a Norwegian and a non combatant, has four brothers serving with the Royal Durban Light Infantry (RDLI) a British Regiment.

1900-10-08 As they are leaving a Military Officer takes the keys from the Larsens and their home is immediately occupied by Lieutenant-Colonel Gawne, O/C forces in Vryheid, and Captain Shaw. Most of Lieutenant-Colonel Colonel Gawne's 900 strong force are garrisoned on Lancaster Hill just outside the town. The records show that, whilst Lieutenant-Colonel James Moore Gawne continued to occupy the well furnished and comfortable Larsen home, the next two months of inactivity bred complacency in the 2/Royal Lancaster Regiment garrisoned at Lancaster Hill.

1900-12-11 In the early hours of the morning a 1200 strong Boer force approaches Vryheid-Lancaster Hill from the north and attacks the Lancaster Hill garrison.

1900-12-11 Soon after daybreak Lieutenant-Colonel Gawne, apparently unaware of the severity of the situation, decides to lead a small relief force out of the town of Vryheid to Lancaster Hill. In doing so, he exposes himself to heavy Boer fire and is mortally wounded in the abdomen, with a secondary wound in the right shoulder. He dies the following day.

1900-12-16 An inquirey convened at Vryheid under the direction of Major J F Manifold, RFA. Evidence was taken from a selection of all ranks from Captain Ormond down, and the conclusions comprised a litany of lessons that should already have been learnt by that point in the war.

1901-01-29 Angel Sivert Larsen born 29January1901 in Durban, South Africa.

1902 Major General Bruce Hamilton was the British commander in Vryheid and asked the Zulu king not to allow his followers to take part in any retaliatory action against the Boers. This request included the abaQulusi tribe.

1902-05-03 A 73 man Boer commando under Jan (Mes) Potgieter raided the abaQulusi settlement near Holkrans, raised their kraal and stole their cattle.

1902-05-06 The abaQulusi attacked the Boer Laager and massacred the sleeping men. Jan Potgieter and 56 of the original 73 burgers were slaughtered. This action crippled the Boer forces in Northern Natal and coming as it did, at a critical stage in the peace negotiations, it had a major effect on the "Bittereinders" as they were concerned that the black population were now turning against them.

1902-05-31 The Boer War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Vereeniging in May 1902

1902-08-08 Larsens return to Vryheid to find their property had been ransacked and submit a claim for 796-13-6

1902-11-07 Victor Theodore Larsen born 7November1902 in Vryheid, South Africa

1903-12-18 Shepstone recommends payment to Larsens of 630 - memo dated 18/12/03 Vryheid

1904-03-04 Central Judicial Commission (CJC) allowed a payment of 250 but finally elected to pay a total amount of 50

1904-04-09 Cyril Larsen born 9 April 1904 in Vryheid, South Africa

1905-11-01 Clarence Larsen born 1 November 1905 in Vryheid, South Africa

 

Battlefields: History: Anglo-Boer War: The Battle of Lancaster (or Vryheid) Hill - 11 December 1900.
(MS Coghlan, KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Museum Service)

Vryheid in the south-eastern South African Republic, had been captured in September 1900 by Lieutenant-General H.J.T.Hildyard's 5th Division, as British forces pushed the Boer commandos out of Natal. The town was garrisoned by 900 men, mostly the 2nd Battalion, Royal Lancaster Regiment (six companies), under command of Lt.Col.J.M.Gawne of the Royal Lancs. Most of this garrison was situated on Lancaster Hill, a dominating feature on the northern outskirts. Key posts were Royal Garrison Artillery emplacements at North Gun Point and South Gun Post, with a central camp on a plateau called Mounted Infantry Plateau.

Although the hill was in the process of being further fortified with stone breastworks, the garrison had grown complacent by the time a 1200-strong Boer force approached from the north in December. At approximately 02h00 on the 11th, the Boers launched several almost simultaneous assaults. Mounted Infantry Camp was overrun after total surprise was achieved, but North Gun Point, with a steep approach for attackers, held out, as did South Gun Post overlooking the town. The British soon regrouped, and apart from the loss of several minor outposts, successfully withstood continuous attack throughout that day. Their most prominent casualty was Lt.Col.Gawne himself, who had led a relieving column from Vryheid. He was killed attempting to reach North Gun Point from the lower plateau.

Casualties had been low (58 on the British side, including eight killed, while the Boers had only two confirmed fatalities), and the engagement had no significant strategic influence on the war. However, an enquiry was held concerning the ease with which the commandos had infiltrated the British defences.

The KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Museum Service has recently completed a self-guided battlefield trail, in association with the Lukas Meijer Museum.

 

NOTES: BOER ATTACK ON LANCASTER HILL

The Boer attack on Lancaster Hill, Vryheid, 11 December 1900 Vryheid, in northern KwaZulu-Natal, was, during the South African War (1899-1902), a prominent centre in the south-eastern Transvaal Republic. The Vryheid district, in the then Zuid-Afrikaanse Republiek (ZAR), had been one of the springboards for the Boer invasion of the colony of Natal in October 1899. By 18 September 1900, when British troops occupied Vryheid,(1) the formal chapter of the war had closed. The Boer capitals had been captured - Bloemfontein on 13 March and Pretoria on 5 June 1900 - and the government apparatus of the two republics dispersed.(2) Between March and June 1900, General Sir Redvers Buller's Natal Field Force had driven the Boers from northern Natal,(3) but there is only circumstantial evidence as to why Vryheid itself was only occupied in September.

Aftermath and casualties By 19.30, the battle had died down(70) and it was time to take stock of casualties. The British toll, characterised by the high proportion of officer fatalities, was 58, comprising eight killed, 20 wounded and 30 missing, and the loss of nearly all the mounted infantry horses.(71) On the Boer side, mention has been made of Gunter, one of the two confirmed Boer fatalities, but the circumstances surrounding the death of the second, one Jan de Bruyn, is uncertain. An unconfirmed story had him shot while stealing horses from near the headquarters camp, but it is possible that he was the burgher reported shot later on 11 December when the Boers retired from the hill.(72) De Bruyn (and possibly Gunter too) was buried on Lancaster Hill, close to the British main camp, before being reinterred in Vryheid Cemetery on 6 May 1947. The British, very optimistically, claimed 100 Boers killed and wounded, a list subsequently amended to an 'official' Boer casualty figure of seventeen.(73)

The Inquiry At no point during the battle had the Boers appeared likely to capture Lancaster Hill in its entirety and immediately threaten Vryheid, and the defenders of North Gun Point, South Gun Post, Barrow Point and the Markes-Meredith-Paton positions, had conducted a solid and successful defence. However, the fact that the Mounted Infantry Plateau garrison had been completely surprised and its inadequate defences overcome with ease, was an embarrassment to the British and called for an Inquiry. This was duly convened at Vryheid on 16 Decem- ber under the direction of Major J F Manifold, RFA. Evidence was taken from a selection of all ranks from Captain Ormond down, and the conclusions comprised a litany of lessons that should already have been learnt by that point in the war: the Mounted Infantry Camp was located too far from infantry support; pickets were isolated from each other, but too close to the tents; and the horse-lines and ammunition store were exposed. A common thread throughout was the inadequate manpower for a static defence over such a large area. The commission failed to secure evidence on the incredible silent capture of the entrenched Mounted Infantry Post, and Blomfield confessed to being mystified on that score.(77) The actions of the unfortunate Captain Ormond were roundly condemned, although there were clearly extenuating circumstances. Ormond was the general scapegoat, but no immediate action was taken against him. There was also no censure of the late Colonel Gawne, although he had taken no apparent notice of the several minor Boer forays against Vryheid and nearby centres during the two weeks prior to the battle.(78) His actions on the day were probably also ill-considered.

Epilogue For the British military machine of 1900 and the historian or armchair strategist of the 1990s, the Boer attack on Lancaster Hill had little impact on the progress of the war and generated minimal casualties. In fact, the first newspaper report of the battle in The Times of Natal, downgraded the action to 'continual sniping'.(79) However, it did demonstrate the continued skill and initiative of those commandos which chose to remain in the field after the capture of their capitals. It also reminded the British that the Boers could strike telling blows, at any time or place, at unsuspecting and/or complacent garrisons, and that the war was, in fact, far from over. For the people of Vryheid, who cannot boast a Colenso or Spioenkop, this was the battle of the South African War, and both sides, Boer and British, emerged with equal credit, or lack thereof.

DVL Notes:- The Boers were under the command of a Commandant Badenhorst. The British forces were under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel James Moore Gawne. He was educated at Cheltenham College. He died of wounds aged 46. At an unspecified time, probably soon after daybreak, Colonel Gawne decided to climb the slope separating the two plateaus, probably heading for Carleton's positions. In doing so, he exposed himself to heavy Boer fire and was mortally wounded in the abdomen, with a secondary wound in the right shoulder.(55) Major Carleton assumed overall command and directed the defence for the remainder of the day.

JOHN MOORE GAWNE (b. 1854, d, 1900),the youngest son of Edward Moore and Emily Maria Gawne (born Murry) (see Ch. I. and Ch. IX.) was educated at Lieutenant Shaw's school in Douglas, at Cheltenham College, and at Sandhurst. He served in the Zulu War of 1878, and in the South African War since June last. At the end of September he was appointed district commissioner and general commander of forces at Vryheid, in the Transvaal, " on account of his tact and impartiality in dealing with the Boers." His command was attacked on several occasions by the Boers, who were invariably repulsed with heavy loss. It was during the last of these attacks, on the 11th December, that COLONEL GAWNE, who had been complimented by General Hildyard on his 'able and prompt measures' was mortally wounded. He died on the following day. According to a brother officer, who knew hint well, he " was a most zealous and active officer. All through his military career his Profession came first with him. He stood alone, and asked favours from none. He saw his duty in front of him, and did it truly and well. His juniors went to him for advice and help, and did not go in vain, and his seniors knew they had in him one they could trust, and whose advice would always be what was right~ He was loved by officers, n.c.o.'s., and men, and he has left a blank, not only in the regiment, but in the hearts of his friends, that can never be filled." (Descendant of John Murray, 1st Earl of Atholl - died 1642)

EDWARD MOORE GAWNE, of Kentraugh (b. 1802, d. 1871), son of Edward Gawne, of Mount Gawne, and Catherine Moore, of Pulrose, was born at Mount Gawne in the parish of Rushen. In 1829, he was selected as a member of the House of Keys, and in 1854, he became speaker of that body, having previously acted as deputy-speaker.* He retained this office till the dissolution of the non-elected House in 1867, when, in consideration of his distinguished services, he was offered knighthood, but declined that honour. He also declined to seek election in the new House of Keys, because he objected to the popular method of election, considering the old system had worked well. In polities, he was a strong Conservative, or, perhaps, a Tory of the old school is better description. On his retirement from the Keys, he was presented with the antique speaker's chair belonging to the House.

He was an excellent landlord, being, indeed, an enthusiastic agriculturist, having done much to improve the breed of stock by the importation of pedigree sires. In 1841, he was elected first President of the Isle of Man Agricultural which was re-constituted in that year. He had all the tastes of a country gentleman, keeping his yacht and his kennels of beagles and greyhounds. He was remarkable, not only for the extreme kindliness of his nature, for his unassuming manners, his geniality his unbounded hospitality and charity, but for his unaffected piety and intense love of his native island. No wonder, then, that such a character was beloved and respected both by his fellow members in the House and by all who knew him. The Manx Sun newspaper, in its obituary notice of him, remarks that " there are not, we are sure, any living Manxmen who will not gratefully acknowledge that they were proud of Mr. Gawne and that they will ever affectionately cherish his memory."

+ His uncle, John Moore, of " The Hills," was then speaker.

[See also Emily Maria Gawne] - [see also To E.M.Gawne by William Kennish]

EMILY MARIA GAWNE, nee MURRAY (b. 1814, d. 1889) The second daughter of Colonel Richard Murray and Catherina Bacon, and great granddaughter of John, the third Duke of Atholl, was born at the Hill's House, in Douglas, but spent most of her young life, till she was married to Edward Moore Gawne (see p. 75) in 1835, at Mount Murray. Till her father in-law's death in 1837, when they removed to Kentraugh, she and her husband lived at Ardairey in Arbory. When once settled at Kentraugh, she inaugurated the systematic plan of almsgiving which she carried out during the rest of her life. Her charitable deeds, though munificent, were never spasmodic, being thoroughly well directed, and organized in a business-like way. An instance of this is afforded by the benefit society in the parish of Rushen, which she instituted in 1843. Again, during the time of the Irish famine, when there was great destitution in the island, she started a shop where tea, groceries, and other necessaries were sold at cost price, and she also gave employment to a number of people in spinning and weaving wool. Before the introduction of public elementary education in 1872, she largely supported the girls' school. in the parish of Rushen, and she was mainly instrumental in building the new church at Port St. Mary. A true lady bountiful, she was regarded with affection, mingled with profound admiration and respect for her pious and amiable life. In her relations to her husband, her family, and her friends, she was in every respect admirable, and she performed the duties of hostess with dignity and affability. To commemorate her goodness and kindness to the poor, a slained glass window has been erected in Rushen parish church, the subject of which is very appropriately The Raising of Dorcas."

EDWARD GAWNE (b 1836, d. 1869) Was the eldest, son of the Speaker of the House of Keys. He served as lieutenant in the '9th Regiment, but, not being in good health, he was granted leave of absence after a short stay in the Crimea. He died at Pulrose, Braddan;) Must be the elder brother of JOHN MOORE GAWNE (b. 1854, d, 1900)

BRITAIN PAID 3 MILLION POUNDS TO BOER FARMERS In the treaty that ended the war, Britain paid 3 million pounds to Boer farmers for the destruction of their land, houses and animals. It contained provisions for self government for the Boer Republics within a unified South African state, within a short period of time. The voting rights of Blacks would be left to these republics. So much for the British government claim that they had gone to war in the first place because of the undemocratic nature of voting rights in the Boer republics!

TREATY OF VEREENIGING IN MAY 1902 The Boer War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Vereeniging on 31 May 1902. The peace settlement brought to an end the Transvaal and the Orange Free State as Boer republics. However, the British granted the Boers 3 million for restocking and repairing farm lands and promised eventual self-government (granted in 1907).

TREATY OF VEREENIGING IN MAY 1902 On 31 May 1902,a little before midnight the two parties signed the peace treaty of Vereeniging at Melrose House in Pretoria. By 54 votes to six the representatives agreed to surrender their independence and to recognize the authority of Edward VII in return for: 1. The repatriation of the prisoners of war. 2. A general amnesty with a few exceptions. 3. Limited protection of the Dutch language in the courts. 4. Various economic safeguards such as the maintenance of property rights. 5. Honouring of the republican war debt to a sum of 3 million. 6. Generous relief for the victims of war. 7. Promise of eventual self-government and an agreement that no decision would be taken regarding the franchise of black people until after the introduction of responsible government.

TREATY OF VEREENIGING. Negotiations for peace began on March 23, 1902, and on May 31 Boer leaders signed the Treaty of Vereeniging. The settlement provided for the end of hostilities and eventual self-government for the two Boer republics as colonies of the British Empire. Britain agreed in turn to pay a 3 million indemnity for rehabilitation, and granted amnesty and repatriation to Boer soldiers who pledged their loyalty to the British monarch.

In the course of the Boer War, British losses totaled about 28,000 men. Boer losses were about 4000 men, plus some 20,000 civilians who died from disease in concentration camps.

The Treaty of Vereeniging brought peace and political unification to South Africa but did not erase the underlying causes that had triggered the conflict. Even after the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910, the Boers, by and large, kept themselves culturally and socially separate - a fact that has only begun to change in recent years.

URL: http://www.fwkc.com/encyclopedia/low/articles/b/b003001844f.html

"The Battle of Holkrans (N'Tashane)", but by Ken Gillings.

Our speaker started off by describing the situation in Northern Natal in the closing stages of the AngloBoer War in 1902. Although the British forces had occupied and garrisoned the towns of Vryheid and Utrecht in the former Nieuwe Republiek/ZAR territory, the Boer commandos were still able to operate with relative impunity in the surrounding countryside. In addition, peace negotiations were in progress and there appeared to be a tacit agreement by both the Boers and the British that they would not embark on any major military operations. However, although the Boer commandos were in tatters and totally demoralized, they still had to live off the land and, as the abaQulusi tribe were the occupants of that area, it meant that they were taking food, cattle and horses from the indigenous population. In addition, Major General Bruce Hamilton, who was the British commander in Vryheid, had asked the Zulu king not to allow his followers, which included the abaQulusi tribe, to take part in any retaliatory action, but rather he wanted use them for intelligence purposes. It was estimated that more than 350 abaQulusi tribesmen who, in addition to their traditional weapons had been armed with rifles, had responded. In April 1902, a number of Boer farmers in the district were murdered and, although General Louis Botha had complained to the British, no action was taken. Accordingly, he instructed his commandos to destroy the various abaQulusi settlements in the area, confiscate their cattle and send their women and children to the British in Vryheid. Nkosi Sikobobo who was the Nkosi of the abaQulusi and who had participated with Gen Botha as an ally in the civil war of 1884 at the Battle of Tshaneni (Ghost Mountain), complained to the British, but he was told that his followers were not to engage in any military action against the Boers, but rather to capture them and (hopefully) bring them in as prisoners!

On the night of 3 May 1902, a Boer commando under Jan (Mes) Potgieter raided the abaQulusi settlement near Holkrans and after razing the kraal, drove off all the cattle. Potgieter had apparently insulted Nkosi Sikobobo by calling on him to show that if he was a man and not a mouse, he should come and retrieve his cattle. This he did with a vengeance at 04h00 on the morning of 6 May 1902 at the Boer laager at the base of Holkrans. Although there were some guards watching the cattle that they had captured, no sentries had been posted. Several burgers were awakened by a rifle shot, but before they could raise the alarm, the abaQulusi had overrun the camp and massacred the sleeping men. A few, including Jan Potgieter, managed to escape up the side of the mountain and fought until their ammunition ran out. They then continued with a desperate hand-to-hand struggle using their rifle butts as clubs, but in the end sheer weight of numbers prevailed and in all, 56 of the original 73 burgers were slaughtered. A few managed to escape by running through the abaQulusi lines, but only three young boys, all under the age of sixteen, were taken prisoner. The abaQulusi then took back the cattle that had been confiscated plus quite a few extra, all the Boer horses and all their provisions. By the time the other commandos came to the rescue, it was too late and the abaQulusi had dispersed. This action crippled the Boer forces in Northern Natal and coming as it did, at a critical stage in the peace negotiations, it had a major effect on the "Bittereinders". When Gen. Louis Botha was told of the disaster, he felt that it was pointless to continue the struggle when even the black population were turning against them. It is for this reason that this incident, arguably, can be described as one of the most decisive actions of the Anglo-Boer War, in that it was a major factor in getting the leaders of the Boer Republics to accept the final peace Treaty of Vereeniging on 31 May 1902. After our usual incisive question time, our Secretary, Dr Ingrid Machin thanked both our speakers for a most enjoyable and informative evening, especially since it had got off to such a potentially disastrous start.

Vryheid: After the Anglo-Zulu war of 1879, the British decided to fragment Zululand into 13 petty states. They hoped to control Zululand more easily by reducing the Zulu nation to smaller tribal elements. The British had not counted on the internal tribal bickering which took place due to the smaller territories. One of the Zulu chieftains, Dinizulu, became heavily involved in competition with Zibebu, a rival chief. In order to obtain support Dinizulu offered rewards of land to mercenaries who would come and fight on his side. In 1884 a group of Boer volunteers formed Dinizulus Volunteers and after several clashes with Zibebu, defeated him at the Battle of Ghost Mountain. The mercenaries then claimed payment and Dinizulu found himself confronted with demands he could not meet. 800 Mercenaries claimed to have fought for him and Zululand was not big enough to give all these greedy, land hungry, individuals farms the size they wanted. After some unpleasantness, Britain intervened and the mercenaries had to be content with a grant of land in the northern part of the country. On the 5 August 1884, these discontented mercenaries declared a republic, with the town of Vryheid as its capital, which lasted for only four years.(In 1888 Vryheid became part of the Transvaal republic) Today Vryheid is a centre for coal mining and ranching. A museum has been created in the old Raadzaal and there is a small fort at the back of this building.

 

From 11 October, Boer commandos, some 14 000 strong crossed into Natal over Langs Nek and passed Majuba. As they advanced they split into three columns. The right column, under command of General Kock advanced south past Fort Mistake to capture the railway line at Elandslaagte, thus preventing British reinforcements at Ladysmith from reaching Dundee. The left column, under General Lukas Meyer, made a wide sweeping movement into the Utrecht and Vryheid area to round up support. The central column under General "Maroela" Erasmus advance towards Dundee.

Bibliography

A Genealogical History of the dormant, abeyant, forfeited and extinct peerages of the British Empire, London, 1866 by Sir Bernard Burke

Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, London

Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels Fuerstliche Haeuser

The Complete Peerage 1936 by H.A.Doubleday & Lord Howard de Walden

Reverend titres, enoblissements et Pairies de la Restauration

L'Allemagne dynastique by Huberty, Giraud, Magdelaine

Lodge's Peerage and Baronetage of the British Empire, London, 1872. by Edmund Lodge

The Cousin Book, London, 1935. by Elizabeth Murray, Mrs.Frank Drummond

Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage

The Blood Royal of Britain, Tudor Roll London, 1903. by The Marquis of Ruvigny and Raineval

 

INFORMATION IN REGARDS HIS IMMEDIATE FAMILY BY JOHN MURRAY, DUKE OF ATHOLL

URL: http://rapidttp.com/milhist/0/d00decne.html

Descendants of John Murray, 1st Earl of Atholl (-1642)

The South Africa decendants of the Duke of Atholl living in South Africa are:

X-4 (IX-4-2)

1 John Murray

11th Duke of Atholl

Born 19 January 1929 Johannesburg, South Africa

Married 15 December 1956 Pretoria, South Africa

Margaret Yvonne Leach, daughter of Ronald Leonard Leach and

Faith Kleinenberg

Born 8 July 1935 Louis Trichardt, South Africa

XI-3 (X-4-1)

1 Lady Jennifer Murray

Born 8 February 1958 Louis Trichardt, South Africa

2 Bruce George Ronald Murray

Marquess of Tullibardine

Born 5 April 1960 Louis Trichardt, South Africa

Married 4 February 1984 Johannesburg

Lynne Elizabeth Andrew, daughter of Nicholas George Andrew

and Evelyn Donne de Villiers

Born 7 June 1963 Johannesburg, South Africa

Children, Generation XII-1

3 Lord Craig John Murray

Born 5 June 1963 Louis Trichardt, South Africa

 

Children, Generation XI-3

1 Michael Bruce John Murray

Earl of Strathtay and Strathardle

Born 5 March 1985 Louis Trichardt

2 Lord David Nicholas George Murray

Born 31 January 1986 Louis Trichardt, South Africa

3 Lady Nicole Murray

Born 11 July 1987 Duiwelskloof, South Africa

 

Chronology

1899

12 Oct War breaks out

13 Oct Mafeking besieged by Gen. Piet Cronje

14 Oct Kimberley besieged

20 Oct Battle of Talana Hill

21 Oct Battle of Elandslaagte

30 Oct Battle of Nicholsons Nek

01 Nov Ladysmith besieged by Gen. Petrus Joubert

15 Nov Armoured Train Incident

28 Nov Battle of Modder River

10 Dec Battle of Stormberg (the first of three British defeats that made up Black Week)

11 Dec Battle of Magersfontein (the second of three British defeats that made up Black Week)

15 Dec Battle of Colenso (the third of three British defeats that made up Black Week)

1900

2324 Jan Battle of Spioenkop

57 Feb Battle of Vaalkrans

1428 Feb Battle of Tugela Heights

15 Feb Kimberley relieved by Gen. Sir John French

1827 Feb Battle of Paardeberg

28 Feb Ladysmith relieved by Gen. Sir Redvers Buller

31 Mar Bloemfontein captured First Blockhouses built at the order of Field Marshal Lord Roberts

17 May Mafeking relieved by Sir Bryan Mahon

1 Jun Johannesburg captured

11 Dec Battle of Lancaster (or Vryheid) Hill

1901

27 Jan The third great De Wet hunt began

10-14 Feb De Wet at sand Drift, north of Colesberg and heading west to join Herzog

16 Feb Kitchener had arrived to take over the hunt himself

15 April Neither sides scheme for ending the war had succeeded and the British devastation policy begun

12 Oct The war entered its third year, continuing with the blockhouse system expanding to cover 3,700 miles

15 Dec Kitchener stopped deporting Boer families to camps

15 Nov De la Rey separated from Smuts and Botha by the cleared and protected area around Pretoria

1902

25 Feb De la Rey ambusehd a Methuen convoy capturing all the horses and ammunition he needed

07 March British attacked at Tweebosch and Methuen himself was wounded, 600 men taken and 200 killed or wounded

23 March Kitchener was horrified at this defeat began transferring 16,000 troops from east to west

09 April Boers leaders gathered under British protection at Klerksdorp to meet Kitchener to discuss terms

31 May The Treaty of Vereeniging signed


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